Bloom's Taxonomy


Bloom’s Taxonomy is a classification of different levels of learning. It is important to keep in mind when designing lesson plans. Lesson plans and activities should be oriented to hit on different levels of thinking. Bloom’s taxonomy is a good tool for understanding what and how students should be learning. Benjamin Bloom and a group of educational psychologists created Bloom’s Taxonomy as they were studying different levels of intellectual behavior in 1956.

Bloom’s Taxonomy, 1956:

fx_Bloom-old.jpg

Cognitive Process
Definintion
Action Verbs
Knowledge
Recalling previously memorized information
Duplicate, memorize, recall
Comprehension
Demonstrating and understanding of what is being learned
Classify, describe, paraphrase, summarize
Application
Applying learned knowledge to new situations
Choose, demonstrate, manipulate, solve
Analysis
The breakdown of ideas to find details that support generalizations
Breakdown, distinguish, infer, outline
Synthesis
Use the whole of knowledge to bring forth new meanings or new solutions
Compose, design, generate, revise
Evaluation
Make and support judgments based on internal or external criteria
Argue, defend, evaluate, justify

A former student of Bloom, named Lorin Anderson got together with a new group of psychologists during the 1990’s in order to make an updated model of Bloom’s Taxonomy. This newer model was designed to be relevant to work in the 21st century. It also changed all the cognitive processes from nouns to verbs.

Bloom's Taxonomy, 1990's:

external image fx_Bloom_New.jpg
Cognitive Process
Definition
Action Verbs
Remembering
Recalling previously memorized information
Duplicate, memorize, recall
Understanding
Drawing meaning from subject material
Classify, describe, paraphrase, summarize
Applying
Applying learned knowledge to new situations
Choose, demonstrate, manipulate, solve
Analyzing
Breaking down information and finding relationships between the parts
Breakdown, distinguish, infer, outline
Evaluating
Make and support judgments based on internal or external criteria
Argue, defend, evaluate, justify
Creating
Putting knowledge together to form a whole
Compose, design, generate, revise

Students should be engaging on the upper three tiers of Bloom’s Taxonomy in order to engage in the material and practice appropriate mental skills. The lower tiers may be sufficient to pass some tests, but they do not instill any true level of understanding of the topic. If students are to learn on the upper tiers, that means that lessons should foster learning on these levels.

Bloom's Taxonomy as Told by the Andy Griffith Show:





Resources


Ormrod, J. E. (2008). Educational Psychology: Developing Learners (6th ed.). Upper Saddle
River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.

Old Dominion University Bloom's Taxonomy Page

Clemson University Bloom's Taxonomy Action Verbs Page

Created by: Josh Horwitz